Joining us on the blog today is the newest member of the MIDPA committee, Presley Kajirwa. Presley shares with us the fascinating story of why he decided to study MIDP at Monash, and what he has gained from the experience so far.
Habari nyote! (Greetings to all!)
I am Presley Kajirwa, a young soul embracing his 20-something years miles away from my home country. I was born in Western Kenya. To reach my home you would have to embark on a nine-hour drive from the capital Nairobi.
When it comes to Africa, many people are only familiar with South Africa, but there are fifty-three other beautiful countries on the continent. I hate to be biased, but when it comes to my country, I cannot help but be overly patriotic and proud of the home that I did not choose. I come from a resource-rich country governed by ‘poor’ leaders (at least that Is what they pretend to be). My home is Kenya, aka Kenia, and we are the power house of East Africa, although of late we have been struggling to maintain that reputation.
It was mid-2015 when I graduated from Daystar University, located in Athi River, Kenya. Through my undergraduate course I learned about numerous topics, such as conflict resolution and transformation, peace studies, international relations, & security and refugee studies (just to name a few). I figured therefore that my future would lie in the military or development worlds. After two or three unsuccessful attempts at joining the men in uniform, I decided to focus more on my passion for development. This is how I ended up seeking more knowledge and skills at Monash. Prior to this period, I had temporary employment with international rescue committees, as well as an NGO tasked with protecting refugees and providing essential services once they were safe and settled.
What did I do there?
Apart from receiving and loading trucks with aid materials, we had chats with truck drivers who shared their fascinating stories. The most common narrative concerned how insecurity and poor infrastructure was a constant challenge to their ability to carry out their job of aid delivery.
Why Monash? Why MIDP?
While pondering the next move in my life, my family members recommended that I look into furthering my studies. Following my online research, I decided to settle for an Australian university. Monash University (and I am not saying this just because I am a student here), really stood out for me. I was intrigued by the fact that, from the campus website, I was able to visualise my life as a student both inside and outside of the lecture halls. The clarity, openness, and detailed information made me extremely eager to experience learning the Monash way.
Armed with my passion and experience, I enrolled in the Master of International Development Practice. To be honest, this course is so interesting that if I had the power to wind back time, I would study International Development Practice for my Bachelor’s degree. Aside from how fascinating and enlightening it is, I find this development course to be incredibly diversified, integrative, and realistic.
Having completed my first semester, I look forward to building on what I have learnt throughout the remainder of the degree. I am also looking forward to the events put on by the MIDPA, particularly the tremendously-informative Brown Bag seminars. I think that every aspect of the experience of undertaking MIDP here in Melbourne is benefiting me and helping me to achieve my goals. I believe that development agents have a key role in social justice, streamlining public governance, and promoting progressive development. I cannot wait to contribute to these fields. After several windy winters and hot summers full of new experiences and memorable times, I know that the time will come that I will pack my bags for the trip back home. While I will certainly miss a lot, like the many insightful debates with interesting friends, at the same time I am eager for this period, for I know that I will return to my home as a wiser, more knowledgeable individual than the one that left. One that is far better-equipped to meaningfully contribute to making my country, and my planet, a better place to live for all.Presley Kajirwa
Joining us on the blog today is our guest contributor, Emily Maiorino. Emily has been volunteering at Oaktree for 12 months as a partnership manager. She has been working on the Girls’ Education Initiative (GEI) which is an education program targeting vulnerable and marginalised youth in rural Cambodia. Her role has been providing program support to their implementing partner organisation in Cambodia. She is also currently studying a Master’s of International Development at RMIT, due to finish in June 2018. Today, she draws from her own personal experience to share some insightful reflections on the state of education in rural Cambodia.
Basic education is a fundamental human right but, although the Cambodian Constitution guarantees education to every Cambodian child, a considerable gap remains between rhetoric and reality. Significant barriers to accessing quality education still exist across the country, particularly for rural youth, girls and ethnic minority groups. As part of my research working on a girls education project over the past year, I have gained insight into the current problems existing within the Cambodian education system.
The issues facing rural youth
Despite the fact that 80% of Cambodia’s population live in rural environments, schools in rural districts face inadequate facilities, lack of resources, poor governance and higher dropout rates than their urban counterparts. Indigenous ethnic groups and diverse Austroasiatic dialects also pose challenges and barriers to rural education.
The proportion of the country estimated to be under 30 varies from more conservative estimates of 59% to as high as 65.3%. The rising number of young Cambodians entering the workforce is creating a pattern of national and international employment migration. Studies have named Kampong Cham as the second major sending area for youths searching for employment. 60% are female.
Kampong Cham and Tbong Khmum provinces are the most densely populated region of the country, even surpassing the capital, Phnom Penh. The Mekong River divides the Kampong Cham and Tbong Khmum provinces, creating a rich floodplain for agricultural practices. The region continues to be well known for rubber, cassava and tobacco plantations, which engage a significant amount of child and youth labour. Factories owned by foreign investors are penetrating the region and employing thousands of young women and men. Through my own qualitative data collection, I identified that a direct correlation exists between the emergence of new factories within close proximity to rural communities, and increased secondary school dropout rates.
The imminent need for stable financial security drives youth -particularly women and girls- out of education and into employment. Gender roles are firmly structured and historically, women have seldom been associated with success in education or business. Hierarchical and patronage roles are also embedded deeply within Cambodian culture which limits the female role models available for inspiration. Young women and girls often leave formal education to work in the domestic sphere or seek employment to generate income for their family. The critical period for girls is lower secondary school (grades 7-9) when the majority of dropouts occur. In many cases, the increased employment opportunities and paychecks that stem from further education do not appear to be a payoff that is justified by the associated costs of school.
Cambodia is in the process of rebuilding its education system after its collapse under the Khmer Rouge. Over the 15 years, education campaigns and policy reforms have promoted the value and importance of education as a national priority (see the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport (MoEYS) website regarding education for policies, strategies, legislations, and statistics). Through the commitment of MoEYS and interventions from international agencies, an attitudinal shift is occurring at a national scale.
Presently, around 97% of children are enrolled in primary school, with gender parity achieved for boys and girls. This initial step focussed largely on the expansion of access to education and increasing enrollment rates. Lack of quality education, however, remains the crucial issue and has resulted in significant numbers of children repeating grades or failing to complete even primary education. Low literacy and numeracy levels in secondary school are some of the consequences of low-quality education. The current agenda remains strongly focussed on quality education, teacher training, capacity building, gender and overall equality.
The Millennium Development Goals (MDG) and accompanying international pressures drove a sense of urgency in regards to education reform. Cambodia joined UNESCO’s Education For All (EFA) program in 2003, which kickstarted the next decade of strategic planning. Partnerships between MOEYS and international agencies that formed during this time have worked to combat systemic issues and cultural norms. A long list of programs, policies, research initiatives, action plans, monitoring reports, and goals have been the product of the last 15 years of work in education.
Where do we go from here?
The disparities that still exist in the Cambodian education system are affecting the most vulnerable and marginalised groups of its society. The barriers and challenges are particularly ubiquitous for rural youth and girls. Nonetheless, Cambodia’s education system is in a racing upwards trajectory. Through international NGOs, foreign aid, partnerships between states and institutions and rising local support, quality education is high on the national agenda.
“To build a quality higher education system that develops human resource with excellent knowledge, skills and moral values in order to work and live within the era of globalization and knowledge-based society” – MOEYS’ 2030 vision for higher education
MOEYS’ vision reflects the national desire for Cambodia to match ASEAN’s economic growth and prosperity. There’s still a long way to go to in terms of achieving equitable access to quality education for all, but I do think strides are being taken in the right direction. The education system will be in the spotlight over the coming decades and my hope is that it remains a national priority. While a future independence from international aid would be ideal, at present, multilateral efforts are displaying encouraging results for young Cambodians aiming to fulfill their right to education.
ASEAN. (2013). State of Education Report.
UNESCO. (2015). Education for All National Review.
UNICEF. (2015). Annual Report Cambodia.
Managing Director (voluntary)
Work Type/s: Volunteer
Classification/s: Community Development, Executive & Senior Management, International Aid & Development, Project Management, Volunteer Management
Sector/s: Not For Profit (NFP)
Job posted on: 21 February, 2017.
Applications close: 01 March, 2017. – See more at: http://www.ethicaljobs.com.au/Members/whydev/managing-director-voluntary#sthash.GVXWs5No.dpuf
Read the full description: http://www.ethicaljobs.com.au/Members/whydev/managing-director-voluntary
When first assigned this topic exploring internships I was originally going to share my experience as a policy and communications intern with U.N. humanitarian agency, the World Food Programme. For me, it is what I retrospectively refer to as a ‘turning point’ in my life. I met amazing mentors and lifelong friends, and I gained an insightful introduction to humanitarian response and development work and the skills to get me started.
Whilst there is a perception that an elusive U.N. internship is prestigious in a number of varying ways, which I believe is dependent on the perceiver’s value hierarchy, it is also thought of to be exclusive. It would be presumed that the leaders in human rights and equality would practice what they preach, however for many students, the reinforced system of unpaid internships for experience and/or credit points by the U.N. is financially unattainable.
I was fortunate that my placement with WFP is one of the few agencies that pay interns a monthly stipend. What this translates into real terms is that each month I could use the money to either cover my rent, or pay for all of my other living expenses. This meant I needed to be armed with a decent chunk of savings, and some financially-able supportive parents.
All in all it costs to intern at the U.N. and to contribute to ‘the fight against hunger’. Was it worth it though?
But thinking beyond myself, what does this mean for the sector and the type of professionals that will be able to work in it. It’s often a hard pill to swallow because it can feel as though I must justify why my lottery ticket for life should not be a part of what defines me as a person, but I recognise that I am privileged. I come from Australia, a politically stable (despite past years backroom dealings) and wealthy country. I also live in what is ranked as the most liveable city in the world, Melbourne. Furthermore, my parents were able to realise their efforts and be fortunate to reap the results of their hard work by being able to send my siblings and I to a private school.
I represent a common face at the U.N., and it is the type of face that despite all of the other aspects that I might bring to the table is exclusive to other deserving, intelligent, and passionate students who would contribute much to our ambitious shared goals of alleviating poverty and promoting equality.
So where is the root of this issue? It’s hard to define, as there are various aspects which must be considered.
Supporting academic learning with practical learning is important in ensuring students are ready for the professional world. How students can gain this experience is often by volunteering or interning.
The difference between volunteering and interning can be akin to splitting hairs, and can be dependent on the provider. With an internship however, there is a growing requirement that these roles provide relevant tasks that will help students to practice and develop skills appropriate to their course. This requirement leads to the question that if one is interning for skills development, and not volunteering for altruistic reasons, how should one be compensated? Organisations would argue that compensation is through the opportunities that interning with them provides; networking, experiences, skills etc, the resume padders.
In a sector like international development and humanitarian assistance where field and international experience is a criteria, this means that interns often must give to the role more than they may equivalently take away. Most of all, like many of the criticisms of the international volunteering practices, the outcome of unpaid internships is a reinforcement of power hierarchies that favour those from developed countries.
Following global headlines about a 22-year-old intern from New Zealand living in a tent in Geneva because he couldn’t afford to pay rent, direction of fault was indicated by UN officials stating that responsibility lay with the General Assembly to reverse the rules regarding the non-payment of interns. As many of us are familiar with, seeing such changes made through the G.A. will be glacial.
However, organisations such as the U.N. are not the only players with influence on this issue. Universities, who are increasingly competing to prove their global credentials encourage the uptake of internships, offering course credit for such experiences. There is are two sides to this particular coin. Many internships, from the U.N. or others require that applicants either be attending or have recently graduated from a university degree, and/or must be able to receive credit.
Universities benefit from students successfully undertaking such placements as they can promote their relevance and connection to the job marketplace to prospective students. They also benefit from the fees they charge students for a course they do not even teach.
If internships are often limited to those attending, or have recently attended university, and such placements can receive course credit, and universities have a vested interest in students undertaking such experiences; then arguably they should also help address the issues of inequality. Yes, many offer generous scholarships and grants, which go a long way in covering the cost of undertaking an internship, however they do not often cover the additional costs of the course fee.
This may be a whole other kettle of fish from a university standpoint, and it can be argued that students would be paying that fee regardless if its an internship unit or otherwise.
Although universities are helping to address issues of accessibility through financial support, and should be highlighted, grants and scholarships offered are often not applicable or attainable to all students undertaking an internship. In some cases, support is limited to citizens from where the university is based. Furthermore, not every university is in a position to provide significant support to each student. As such, how much of the burden should be placed with universities?
Perhaps, at the end of the day the argument comes back to the added value that interns do provide, and “a fair day’s work deserves a fair day’s pay”. Everyone learns whilst on the job, an intern no more, and no less.
There’s a simple solution, though it may be lengthy to achieve through the General Assembly, and that’s to recognise the value of interns with compensation. Further, justifying unpaid internships based on students benefiting by receiving course credit, well we students pay for that too.
My summer internship began back in March 2015 when I applied for the position of Fiji Partnership Manager with the Socio-Economic Engagement and Development club at Monash University (Monash SEED). A student-run club that aims to create social impact through different means such as microfinance. The primary responsibility of the position was the creation of a brand new international project, and involved constant use of basic communications technologies, such as email and Skype, that served as a liaison tool between Monash SEED – and the South Pacific Business Development (SPBD Fiji), the largest microfinance organisation in Fiji.
By selecting this project as my internship, I came to realise that working cross-culturally was going to be challenging. However, I felt confident in my capabilities to not only become experienced with the role and responsibilities of being Fiji Partnership Manager, but also of achieving leadership skills that the role required. And the first step to achieving that was to recruit my team.
At the beginning of semester two, I recruited four enthusiastic undergraduate students. They were always patiently waiting for updates of the partnership with SPBD Fiji. However, things were going slow. One week, the SPBD Fiji General Manager would email me saying to go ahead with the partnership, and by the next week there would be no response at all. I tried to communicate through other means like Skype messaging and phone calls, which only on certain occasions worked.
The role of project manager was challenging: shuffling work between two organizations, and motivating my team, while trying to stay positive waiting for responses. I quickly came to realise that the role was not as easy as I had originally thought. Anantatmula (2010) explains how important the role of the project manager is. A role which involves planning and executing strategies while being able to lead a team. I wanted to do all those things. However, sometimes I felt discouraged, thinking that probably the General Manager was not taking me seriously and that the team members, faced with all the uncertainty, could change their mind and quit at any time. I had to tell my team that I was trying to do my best to make the partnership work, but in case that these efforts were not successful, that they should consider starting to look for other internships or activities for the summer. In the end only one of them decided to part ways with us, the rest patiently waited for further developments.
It was November 2015, two weeks before the semester ended. I was preparing to have an important Skype meeting with the General Manager that week and I was feeling nervous. During the meeting we arrived at the conclusion that we wanted to be part of a project that involved going into the field and help SPBD processes while making a real impact on the women (members), which are the main reason why microfinance works. Then we brainstormed other project topics, from updating manuals, helping with administrative tasks, to improving financial education lessons. We concluded that SPBD needed to know if the members were satisfied with the services provided. Finally, we came up with the idea of creating, conducting and analysing data of a member satisfaction survey.
I realise now that even though I had the means to create a partnership with SPBD since we started the e-mail and Skype arrangements back in July 2015, it was important to have a clear understanding of what the particular objectives and goals of the stakeholders involved. It took me a few months to finally design a project that would benefit all of the stakeholders. Certainly, I learned how to communicate with both my team and the organisation in order to deliver the expected results.
We arrived in Fiji at the beginning of January. A team composed of two undergraduate students with backgrounds in arts and finance, and myself a Master of International Development Practice student. We had two weeks of preparation in Melbourne. Preparing the members satisfaction survey, talking with customer service experts and also arranging accommodation among other travel preparations. Everything was approved and on time. I knew that we were going to surveyed 100 SPBD members, visit a few villages and travel with field officers. All these things required some logistics arrangements which, according to the General Manager, had already been prepared. However, I was a little concerned about how everything was going to turn out. I remembered how things had been very uncertain just a couple of months before. I recalled the time it took just waiting for an e-mail response, and how that made me feel, as though I was not being taken seriously.
Finally, our first day of internship arrived and I was very excited. My team and I waited in a conference room until the General Manager arrived. The first thing that I discussed with him was establishing a sample group. I knew that it was the largest microfinance organization in Fiji, however I was not aware that SPBD had branches in four predominant areas all over the country. The new information changed our perspective of the project in general: we decided to change the sample group to make it more accurate. We changed our entire schedule, which required us to travel by bus from Suva to Sigatoka, Lautoka and then by boat from Suva to Savusavu, Taveuni and Ovalau.
Fortunately, my team agreed to travel and cover the unplanned expenses. We all knew that in order to reduce any bias in the results, travelling to all the branches to survey its members was essential. We went back to the hostel, very excited for the days to come working in the field. I felt very lucky on having an amazing team, and I felt like I was doing a good job as a Project Manager.
During my summer internship, I have been exposed to a wide-ranging array of people, ideas and culture. It certainly gave me firsthand experience on working cross-culturally. The role offered me practical insight into the workings of a real world microfinance institution and its impacts in development scopes. Gaining knowledge and skills, such as team work, time and budget management, and ability to negotiate and delegate. Proving a strong awareness of the position between both of the organizations, I have initiated, developed and maintained an effective partnership between them, associated groups and external agencies and individuals.
For those seeking internship placements, my suggestion to you is this: Have you considered contacting organisations or institutions and proposing a project? You don´t need to wait for the perfect internship position to open up, you can begin a partnership with a simple e-mail or Skype meeting to discuss a project that could benefit both… And just be patient.